Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Not for Profit Free Essays

Erin Powell Dr. Donald Roy PS 101 September 29, 2012 Martha Nussbaum: â€Å"Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities† Martha C. Nussbaum is the author of the book, â€Å"Not For Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities. We will write a custom essay sample on Not for Profit or any similar topic only for you Order Now † The book begins by drawing the reader’s attention by explaining the â€Å"Silent Crisis. † She describes education in the eyes of the government, and in the eyes of the people. There is a connection made between education and the liberal arts. The title of the book, â€Å"Not For Profit,† are three simple words that when put together, have a deep meaning. In this case, Nussbaum is using the phrase to relate to education. The government sees education as a way to further our economic situation. Statistics say that a student that attends college will earn a great deal more than a student that has not attended college. When people earn more money, they usually spend more money. This stimulates our economy, and is the goal of the government. Government aims to use education as a tool to better our economy, yet they continually decrease the amount of money they give to public schools each year. They take out the true classes that give a person their true identity. It seems as if people are slowly becoming uniform, in being that liberal arts are being taken away, and students are left to studying simply the core classes of what they call â€Å"education†. Martha is trying to explain that our education is not for profit! Education is supposed to let people explore different skills and talents. There is a difference between education for profit, and education for citizenship. Education is intended to enhance the lives of the students which receive it. Nussbaum 9). Martha quoted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, which said: Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups. I couldn’t agree more with this quote. This should be the true mean ing and importance of education, not for the greediness of the government to use it for profit. Democracy truly needs the humanities. Liberal arts supplement education in making it better-rounded. Without the arts and humanities, we become the government’s puppets, only being used to increase the economy. Liberal arts have been a part of education for quite some time. However, they have never truly been an important part of education according to government standards. What are important to them are the four core subjects: math, science, social studies, and language arts. Martha Nussbaum seems to disagree. To her, the liberal arts are the parts of education that make each student an individual. It gives them their creativity, and it teaches their brains to think critically and analytically, rather than being confined to a box dictated by the core subjects. These ways of thinking are very valuable. They set apart each person, giving them their true identity. Liberal arts teach people to think for themselves. Without them people will rely on the government to do the thinking, and the government will no longer truly represent its people. The Socratic Way defines the way in which students â€Å"think and argue for themselves, rather than defer to tradition and authority,â€Å" and is â€Å"valuable for democracy. (Nussbaum 48). In terms of education this is important because thinking for oneself leads to critical thinking. Critical thinking causes students to also think analytically; therefore they get a better understanding of their material. Democracy is rule of the people. If the people cannot â€Å"think and argue for themselves,† then how can they rule their coun try? It would be difficult to choose representatives if the people could not make their own decisions. Also in the business world as well, it would be difficult to get anything accomplished. Tradition and authority have been important in history. However, Nussbaum does not seem to agree with them. When everything just goes by tradition, nothing is being changed. Things just happen the way they have always happened. Authority tends to stay similar as well. This is because people just go with the flow. They tend to not think for themselves, but instead make decisions based on tradition. Martha Nussbaum is a liberal; when things need to be changed, they should be changed, and I completely agree. We cannot live according to tradition, because there might be a critical thinker or two in this world whom can discover a better or more efficient way to do things. If we are to improve at all in our lifetimes, living by tradition is not going to accomplish the goal. In this world there are Americans, Europeans, Australians, Mexicans, etc. However divided, we still affect each other. We borrow, buy, and sell from other countries, as well as become allies or enemies. Martha describes a â€Å"world citizen† in her book. This means that despite our geographical and cultural differences, we should put these aside to work together. â€Å"The world’s schools, colleges, and universities therefore have the important and urgent task: to cultivate in students the ability to see themselves as members of a heterogeneous nation, and a still more heterogeneous world, and to understand something of the history and character of the diverse groups that inhabit it. † (Nussbaum 80. ) The idea of becoming a â€Å"world citizen† is wildly idealistic. There are so many people in this world that just cannot accept others. Power is a huge part of it, being that people want to be in charge. Some don’t want to be considered equal; they believe that some people are superior to others. It would take a humungous amount of effort to convince everyone on the planet to become a â€Å"world citizen. † Play is important in the lives of all people, but especially children as they begin to develop. Nussbaum talks about play in Chapter 6. It is essential to play in order to understand the value and worth of other people. Children’s stories and nursery rhymes cause children to put themselves in the shoes of another person. Therefore they learn that other human beings have feelings also, which helps children with a healthy development. It’s this healthy development in which play causes that Nussbaum believes is so important. As children grow into adults, however, they don’t necessarily â€Å"play. † They have â€Å"left behind the world of children’s games. † (Nussbaum 101). Therefore the arts become important. Whether it’s music, singing, painting, photography, etc. , the arts put people, fictionally, into the shoes of others. In doing this, people continue to grow in their concern for other human beings. As Martha describes our current situation, democratic education is truly â€Å"on the ropes. † Chapter seven talks about why this is true. Our economy is not doing so well. Every day our country goes further and further in debt. Apparently to our government, education is not very important, so they continue to make cut after cut of school funding. When the schools receive less money they have to make cuts on their spending. The humanities are always first to be reduced or eliminated. But when humanities, an important factor of a democratic education, are taken away we are certainly â€Å"on the ropes†! Without the humanities, schools cannot fully give students a democratic education. So what can we do about it? Nussbaum mentioned the alumni of schools. She claimed that some of them will send money or grants to their previous schools to help fund the humanities and liberal arts which they enjoyed having while they were in school. However, this cannot fund all parts of every program. Even in the core-subject classroom, we can encourage critical thinking. However, class sizes would have to be downsized. Schools would have to hire more teachers. Finances would obviously have to come from somewhere. But in decreasing the amount of students in each classroom, it is easier for the teacher to focus on their students rather than primarily on the material. Smaller groups of students also make it easier to have classroom discussions where all students can participate and think outside the box. Humanities and liberal arts are clearly important to Martha Nussbaum. They should be important to everyone, and I wish they were. This world would be a better place if education was taught around the arts, rather than the arts simply being an elective, or being eliminated due to funding cuts. I enjoy being able to think for myself and I’m sure all people do. Our government is not perfect, and there never will be a perfect government. We can’t rely on tradition to continue governing this country; we have to make changes in order for the government to best represent the people and to make good decisions. Neither can we submit to the authority, just because it’s there. If we don’t agree with something we have to have the audacity to stand up for what we believe in and never give up. Profits shouldn’t be the main influence for education, nor should it control how we educate our future generations. Instead we should focus on developing people as individuals, rather than people as money-makers. We all have feelings, and everyone deep down wants to feel important and competent. Simply ignoring our feelings is not an option. Drew Faust says it best, â€Å"Human beings need meaning, understanding, and perspective as well as jobs. The question should not be whether we can afford to believe in such purposes in these times, but whether we can afford not to. † (Nussbaum 124). Mistakes are made when we question whether or not to keep humanities in education. It’s obvious that democratic education needs the humanities. How to cite Not for Profit, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Job Evaluation, Market Pricing Pay Structures

Difference between job evaluation and market pricing approaches in setting pay ranges and the strengths and drawbacks of each approach One of the most common approaches used in determining employee payment within the private sector entails establishing pay ranges (Cushway, 2011, p. 78). According to Mathis and Jackson (2011, p.383), human resource managers should set pay ranges in accordance with the established pay grades. There are various approaches that human resource managers can incorporate in setting pay ranges. Some of the approaches used in setting pay ranges include job evaluation and market pricing. The two approaches differ with regard to the method used in determining the worth of a job.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Job Evaluation, Market Pricing Pay Structures specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Job evaluation approach involves determining the value of job depending on the job content. Thi s means that job evaluation approach entails using internal data. In this approach, an organization’s human resource manager designs an internal hierarchy of all jobs and sets the pay ranges. According to Jensen, McMullen and Stark ( 2007, p.90), job evaluation takes into consideration a number of factors which include the responsibility, working conditions, effort and skills required to perform a job There are various job evaluation pay systems that a firm can use in setting pay ranges. These include job ranking, job grading, point method and factor comparison. These methods have their benefits and drawbacks. For example, through job grading, a firm is able to deal with internal equity issues. However, this job evaluation approach is limited in that classification of jobs using different grades is subjective. Additionally, the method mainly relies on job titles when setting the pay (Erasmus, Swanepoel, Westhuizen, Schenk Wessels, 2005, p. 358). On the other hand, market pri cing approach or market-based pay entails using labor market data to determine the worth of a particular job. Therefore, this approach involves using external data. In order to use this approach, a firm must identify the relevant labor market which can either be local, regional, national or international. The next step entails obtaining the relevant market pay. Market pricing approach is considered to be an effective and competitive approach of determining pay levels. The benefit of market pricing approach arises from the fact that it emphasizes on a firm’s external competitiveness. Another benefit of the market pricing approach is that it is not too complicated. However, the approach suffers from a number of drawbacks. One of the drawbacks of this approach is that it is not possible to access reliable market data. Therefore, the approach is only applicable if a firm can access market data related to a number of jobs within a particular job family. In addition, market-based p ay or market pricing approach assumes that all jobs within a particular job title in different firms are identical. The approach also assumes that the pay difference that exists within a particular organization reflects internal equity issues. In addition, the approach cannot be used when determining the pay for some jobs which are unique. For example, it a particular job is unique to a certain organization, it is not possible to get another job to compare it with. This means that it is not possible to access market pay data.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reasons why organizations such as JCPenney are determining pay using job accountabilities and results and not effort and tenure As a result of a comprehensive analysis of the benefits and drawbacks associated with evaluation and market-based pay systems, most organization are considering integrating job content-b ased marketing pricing approach in determining pay. There are a number of reasons that are pushing organizations to adopt pays determined by job accountabilities and results and not by effort and tenure. This approach is effective in that it integrates the best elements of job evaluation and market based pay systems. The approach also enables a firm to reflect the actual value of jobs within the firm. JCPenny which operates within the retail industry adopted job content-based market-pricing approach in order to ensure effective valuation of jobs. Through this approach, organizations are able to ensure that internal promotions are based on job content and not results and longevity of tenure. By integrating this approach, organizations are able to access more accurate market data. This arises from the fact that a thorough analysis of the job contents and job designs affect the market value of a particular job is conducted. Jensen, McMullen and Stark (2007, p.95) are of the opinion tha t this approach enables organization management teams to develop a comprehensive understanding of the job description and the criteria used in determining the value of a particular job. The resultant effect is that organization management teams understand why some jobs are categorized as being big and others small. The approach also provides organizations with a consistent and repeatable methodology that can be used when obtaining market data with regard to non-benchmark roles. As a result of these reasons, most organizations such as JCPenney are considering shifting their pay system from one based on effort and tenure to the new approach that is based on results and job accountabilities (Jensen, McMullen Stark, 2005, p. 95). Formulate your research-based recommendations about whether or not the job evaluation approach is outdated A considerable number of firms in different economies have been using job evaluation approach in determining the worth of their jobs. Currently, most org anizations consider this approach as a job-sizing tool (Beale, n.d, p.1). For example, through the point-based method, it is possible for a firm’s human resource manager to determine the worth of various job categories in the organization. Job evaluation approach was widely being used by firms within the public sector to determine the value of their jobs. However, firms within the private sector are increasingly integrating the approach in their human resource management strategies. This is a clear indication that the approach is not outdated (Cushway, 2011, p. 78).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Job Evaluation, Market Pricing Pay Structures specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, the approach is increasingly being considered as an important tool in defending equal pay claims within the private and public sector (Armstrong, Cummins, Hastings Wood, 2005, p. 61). As a result of the versat ile characteristic of the job evaluation approach, organizations in different economic sectors can use it in a number of ways. For example, human resource managers can use the approach to make changes to job contents and to implement organizational and technological changes. Considering the fact that job evaluation approach is based on internal data, a firm’s management team can use job evaluation approach to compare its pay with those in the external market. The approach can also enable human resource managers to harmonize the employees pay and working condition with their pay spine. Other ways in which organizations can use job evaluation approach entails developing fair and equal pay systems and establishing effective grading structures. According to Beale (n.d, p. 3), there is a new trend that is emerging whereby job evaluation is increasingly being linked with other human resource management processes such as performance management and recruitment. This indicates that jo b evaluation is firmly entrenched in human resource practices. The approach is also being used by individuals in developing their career paths. To ensure effective integration of changes within an organization’s job content, human resource managers should consider the employees response. This arises from the fact that failure to involve the employees when implementing changes may result into employee resistance. In order to avoid this, it is paramount for HR managers to integrate effective job evaluation. This will aid in the determination of effective remuneration to be given to the employees. The remuneration should be in line with the changes in the job content undertaken. From the above analysis, it is evident that job evaluation approach is not outdated. As one of the human resource management approaches used in determining the value of a particular job, job evaluation is increasingly being utilized as a support mechanism to different human resource management practices. Despite the fact that the approach can be bureaucratic depending on the type of human resource system being used, the approach has proved to be very effective. This is evidenced by the high rate at which it is being utilized by private and public organizations in different economic sectors. Therefore, there is a high probability of increment in the relevance of job evaluation in the future (Beale, n.d, p. 3).Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Armstrong, M., Cummins, A., Hasting, S., Wood, W. (2005). Job evaluation: A  guide to achieving equal pay. London: Kogan Page. Beale, S. (n.d). Job evaluation: Outdated bureaucracy or modern HR support  mechanism? Web. Cushway, B. (2011). The employers handbook 2011-12. An essential to  employment law. London: Kogan Page. Erasmus, B., et al. (2005). South African human resource management for public  sector. Johannesburg: Juta and Company. Jensen, D., McMullen, T., Stark, M. (2007). The managers guide to rewards:  What you need to know to get the best for and from your employees. New York: American Management Association. Mathis, R., Jackson, J. (2011). Human resource management. Mason: Thomson. This research paper on Job Evaluation, Market Pricing Pay Structures was written and submitted by user Annabella Turner to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Tattoos essays

Tattoos essays While growing up, my parents always said that tattoos were bad, and they disapproved of them. My dad always told me that his mother told him and his brother never to get tattoos, so they never did. I guess he expected me not to get one because he never did. So I knew early on in life that I would end up disappointing my parents, because I would eventually get a tattoo. Its not that I wanted to disappoint my parents, but I knew that tattoos were going to be a part of my life. The first tattoo that I got, was when I was seventeen, by a friend of mine named Kassy. It is located on the lower right side of my stomach, and the image is a pair of cherries, well sort of. They have normal green stems like cherries do, but where there would be two red balls for the cherries, there are two red skulls. I never really knew why I wanted to get this image tattooed on myself, but it was a new experience and I didnt think it over much. I do not regret getting it though. The second tattoo that I got was also from Kassy when I was seventeen. It is on my upper back, centered from shoulder blade to shoulder blade. This image is of two swallows that are reflecting one another. This is my favorite, though it is yet to be colored in, it is a great work of art. When I do get this one colored, the body of the birds are going to be a dark blue that fades to white in the center, and the wings are going to be a teal blue, that fade to white. Then, it will be my prettiest work of art that I designed, imprinted in my skin forever. There is one thing that I have learned from getting tattoos, It is that you should really wait until you are about twenty years or older to get one. Just because of the fact that people tend to change their mind about images that they want on their body for the rest of their life. I have three other ideas for tattoos that I want for my self. The first is a clover, a horseshoe, and the word lucky on the ...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Get 10 Facts About the Element Sodium

Get 10 Facts About the Element Sodium Sodium is an abundant element thats essential for human nutrition and important for many chemical processes. Here are 10 facts about sodium. Sodium is a silvery-white metal belonging to Group 1 of the Periodic Table, which is the alkali metals group.Sodium is highly reactive. The pure metal is stored in oil or kerosene because it spontaneously ignites in water. Sodium metal also floats on water.At room temperature, sodium metal is soft enough that you can cut it with a butter knife.Sodium is an essential element in animal nutrition. In humans, sodium is important for maintaining fluid balance in the cells and throughout the body, while the electric potential maintained by sodium ions is critical for nerve function.Sodium and its compounds are used for food preservation, for cooling nuclear reactors, in sodium vapor lamps, for purifying and refining other elements and compounds, and as a desiccant.There is only one stable isotope of sodium: 23Na.The symbol for sodium is Na, which comes from the Latin natrium or Arabic natrun or a similar-sounding Egyptian word, all referring to soda or sodium carbonate.Sodium is an abundan t element. Its found in the sun and many other stars. It is the sixth most abundant element on Earth, comprising about 2.6 percent of the earths crust. It is the most abundant alkali metal. Although its too reactive to occur in pure elemental form, it is found in many minerals, including halite, cryolite, soda niter, zeolite, amphibole, and sodalite. The most common sodium mineral is halite or sodium chloride salt.Sodium was first commercially produced by thermal reduction of sodium carbonate with carbon at 1,100 Â °C, in the Deville process. Pure sodium may be obtained by electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. It may also be produced by the thermal decomposition of sodium azide.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Final Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Final - Essay Example This is of Italian origin and speaks about the intricacies that surround the human condition (Petsko 2). These works of the Italians tell something about their culture. They value relations between the human and the society with them. Together with it, there is an association of different cultures all packed in to the Divine comedy; something to be regarded as a hybrid that becomes a new level of critical analysis for the society (Papastergiadis 40). Cultures are diverse and they are very colourful since it speaks about identity of every individual. However, one thing to consider in modern world now, especially in America is that arts start to become a burden and its relevance is deteriorating in the context of the modern American society since universities now starts to do cost cutting on the arts and humanities (Petsko 1). This is now a sad situation that I really abhor. The world now becomes a business place and through globalization, America starts to be so hegemonic and homogene ous (Steger 82). This made art a commodity only for entertainment and art as an education becomes a burden (Petsko 1). America now starts to be so insensitive about the importance of arts and humanities for the development of an individual. ... Different priorities happen. Welfare over profit becomes the mode of most societies nowadays (Petsko 1). Cost cutting occurs and the irrelevant ones affected especially the arts. However, the American society now, due to globalization, has become so unappreciative of the arts and undermining its value (Nussbaum 8). Curriculums are changed to be so responsive to the profit driven world that constantly robs the people of the society their right to a decent living (Petsko 1 and Steger 75). Given this case, why did the Americans start to shun out other cultures and view them as not that relevant to the conditions of America now? Globalization is the answer. Globalization starts to exert a hegemonic in all forms especially culture especially in terms of the popular (Steger 81). Even if we say that culture is something intrinsic and relevant to one particular group or society, they have been undermines by these hegemonies. Hybrid then becomes a form of resistance (Papastergiadis 49). This becomes a strong that can at least sustain the field of arts and humanities in other countries present in the world though I always put into consideration that even if this resistance is indeed plausible, it still cannot exert a very strong condition for it to prevent the diminishing value that the arts and humanities, ultimately culture in its totality, cannot be regarded as strong enough. In the present wave of occurrence, I somehow detest the political moves of the America in the global arena since they are regarded to be one of the strongest forces that uphold globalization. This something that I do not really like at all because globalization then becomes a tool for America to be undemocratic and inconsiderate of other cultures which could be a reflection of

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Write an essay on Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House in which you

Write an on Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House in which you either support or oppose Nora Helmer's decision at the conclusion of the play to leave her family - Essay Example She is heroic and not selfish as most critics conclude. Critics of Nora Helmer’s decision to leave her family at the end of the play point out that she was too impulsive. An example in the play is Mrs. Linde who decides that she ought to take care of the man she loves for her to be contented with herself (Ibsen & Henrietta 6). Her character is a complete opposite of Nora’s character in terms of attitudes and emotions. The character of Mrs. Linde clearly shows that Nora’s decision to leave her family was not the only decision available to women in her situation. Other critics who have read the book like the Swedish playwright August Strindberg attack Nora’s decision to leave her family as unacceptable (Billington 1). This is because the marriage covenant was considered holy. He condemns Nora’s behavior and deems her as irresponsible and selfish since she decides to leave her children because they do not have to pay for the mistakes of their father. The times depicted in the play do not support Noraâ€⠄¢s behavior since no true woman would ever make such a choice at that time in history. Nora Helmer is not only a victim of male domination, but also a master of the domestic world. She is dedicated enough to take care of her sick husband, courageous enough to forge her father’s signature and confident enough to pay back all her debts no matter how tough the situation gets (Unwin & Ibsen 10). Nora Helmer cannot be blamed for her desire of the ‘wonderful thing’; the ideal union where both husband and wife regard each other as rational individuals aware of the society they live in and they can also fulfill their individual duties. Her ideation of what marriage ought to be bringings her to the awareness of the flaws in her own marriage. This awareness is what finally drives her to leave her husband as her husband’s firm decision not to compromise his integrity for the sake of love ignites her decision and she leaves, slamming the door. This is

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Great Gatsby :: Essays Papers

Great Gatsby4 From the time he wrote his first novel, F. Scott Fitzgerald was bound to be a classic novelist, portraying his life from birth, through his youth, and through his older years in mostly all of his novels, including his most popular novel, The Great Gatsby. Fitzgerald’s life from youth to death found full expression in some 160 short stories (Prigozy, 1). The elegiac note that characterizes his reminiscences of his early childhood and struggling adolescence greatly affected his work (Prigozy, 1). F. Scott Fitzgerald was born on September 24, 1897 in St. Paul, Minnesota. His father, Edward Fitzgerald was a distinguished lawyer, Fitzgerald’s mother, Mary McQuillan, was left with the inheritance of a million-dollar grocery business after her parents’ death (Philips, 1). Fitzgerald was an intellectual, and he was a very dramatic child, but did poorly in school and he was often known as an outcast (Philips, 1). He grew up experiencing the end of WW1 and the jazz age. He also got to experience the roaring twenties (Prigozy, 1). He moved many times with his family in his young age. His family often moved to different apartments in the same cities (Prigozy, 1). These, his teen years, had a great impact on his life. â€Å"A sense of estrangement so characteristic of his formative years marks much of his fiction, from the first short stories, written when he was thirteen, to his last efforts in Hollywood† (Prigozy, 2). In 1911, at the age of fourteen, Fitzgerald was enrolled into St. Paul academy. This would be where he published his first few short stories in the school magazine. He later re-created his school years in the Basil Duke Lee series, which showed what it was like to be an outsider and to be disliked, as Fitzgerald was (Pr igozy, 2). He was an average student, but managed to get into Princeton in 1913, from which he never graduated (Philips, 1). His years at Princeton were the most influential on his writings, mostly because of a man named John Peale Bishop. Bishop introduced Fitzgerald to poetry, that especially of John Keats and Edmund Wilson, who would become the â€Å"intellectual conscience† of Fitzgerald’s life (Prigozy, 3). Instead of graduating, he enlisted into the Army at the end of WW1, which is when he met his wife Zelda Sayre, whom he met in a boot camp during the war (Philips, 2).